tm219672-5_424b5 - none - 4.9375294s
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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-232955
Prospectus Supplement
(To prospectus dated August 21, 2019)
6,896,552 shares
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Common stock
We are offering 6,896,552 shares of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RUBY.” On March 15, 2021, the last reported sale price for our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was $30.29 per share.
We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure and reporting requirements.
Per share
Total
Public offering price $ 29.00 $ 200,000,008.00
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1) $ 1.74 $ 12,000,000.48
Proceeds to Rubius Therapeutics, Inc., before expenses $ 27.26 $ 188,000,007.52
(1) See “Underwriting” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,034,482 shares of common stock from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement (including without limitation, the risk factor entitled “The price of our stock may be volatile, and our stockholders could lose all or part of their investment”), as well as those risks described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares to purchasers on or about March 19, 2021.
Joint book-running managers
J.P. Morgan
Jefferies
Guggenheim Securities
March 16, 2021

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Table of contents
Prospectus supplement
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About this prospectus supplement
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part, the accompanying prospectus dated August 21, 2019, including the documents incorporated by reference therein, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, before the date of this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the respective dates thereof, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections titled “Where you can find more information” and “Incorporation of certain information by reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.
We and the underwriters are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States.
Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by referenced herein or therein to “Rubius,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Rubius Therapeutics, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.
 
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Prospectus supplement summary
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should carefully read the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the section titled “Risk factors” contained in this prospectus supplement, as well as the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompany prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are a part.
Company overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company that is genetically engineering red blood cells, or RBCs, to develop an entirely new class of cellular medicines called Red Cell Therapeutics, or RCTs. Our company was built upon the research and findings of Flagship Pioneering’s Venture Labs innovation team along with the discoveries of Professors Harvey Lodish and Hidde Ploegh of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at MIT. Based on the premise that human red blood cells are the foundation of the next significant innovation in medicine, we have developed a proprietary and highly versatile platform, which we call the RED PLATFORM, to genetically engineer and culture RCTs that are selective, potent and ready-to-use cellular therapies for the potential treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
We are developing RCT product candidates based on two therapeutic modalities—immune system stimulation for the treatment of cancer and immune modulation to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases.
Broad and diverse pipeline
We are advancing a broad pipeline of RCT product candidates. Our current programs are investigating applications across a range of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
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Definitions:    aAPC-artificial antigen presenting cell; HPV16+-Human papillomavirus 16 positive; R/R -relapsed/refractory.
Recent developments
On March 15, 2021, we announced initial clinical, pharmacodynamic and tumor trafficking data from our ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial of RTX-240 in patients with advanced solid tumors. We also shared tumor trafficking data from one patient with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, in the second Phase 1 arm of the study. We believe these data provide initial proof-of-concept of the RED PLATFORM® by providing evidence that
 
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red blood cells can be engineered to mimic the human immune system and stimulate adaptive and innate immunity to generate clinical responses in cancer patients with refractory disease.
Initial Efficacy Data
Five (5) dose cohorts were completed in the solid tumor trial at the time of the data cutoff on February 28, 2021 (n=16), with 16 patients evaluable for safety (primary outcome measure) and 15 patients evaluable for efficacy (secondary outcome measure) based on RECIST v1.1.
The study is continuing to enroll patients and despite the fact that dose optimization is still ongoing, RTX-240 generated:

A confirmed partial response, or PR, with a 54% reduction in the target lesions at the 1e8 dose administered every 4 weeks in a patient with metastatic anal cancer whose disease had progressed on anti-PD-L1 therapy. Treatment of this patient was ongoing 8 months following the first dose at data cutoff;

An unconfirmed PR with complete resolution of the target hepatic lesion and resolution of 14/15 hepatic lesions at the 1e10 dose administered every 4 weeks in a patient with metastatic uveal melanoma whose disease had progressed on anti-PD-1 therapy. Treatment of this patient was ongoing 4 months following the first dose at data cutoff; and

Stable disease (SD) was observed in 6 patients, including 4 individual patients with stable disease for at least 12 weeks:

Non-small cell lung cancer (disease stabilization for 12 weeks with treatment ongoing as of the data cutoff);

Soft tissue sarcoma (disease stabilization for 4 months);

Pancreatic cancer (disease stabilization for 3 months); and

Prostate cancer (disease stabilization for 4 months).
Initial Safety Data
The most common treatment-related Grade 1/2 adverse events were fatigue (n=4), chills, nausea, decreased appetite and arthralgias all reported in 3 patients each. There were no treatment-related Grade 3/4 adverse events, no dose-limiting toxicities and a single Grade 1 event of liver toxicity.
Ten (10) immune-related adverse events, or irAE, were observed among 5 patients with no reported treatment-related Grade 3/4 irAEs. Grade 2 treatment-related irAEs included pneumonitis (n=1), adrenal insufficiency (n=1) and hypothyroidism (n=1).
Pharmacodynamic Data
In addition to evaluating safety and preliminary efficacy data, the trial is evaluating the pharmacodynamic effects of RTX-240:

RTX-240 stimulated innate and adaptive immunity as demonstrated by the activation and/or expansion of NK or memory CD8+ T cells in all patients, with 9/16 patients showing activation and expansion in both cell types. There was an overall trend towards a dose response in absolute NK cell numbers (expansion);

Detailed NK cell analysis showed an increased percentage of CD16+CD56dim (mature NK cells) and CD56bright (immature NK cells) across dose levels

These cell subtypes are associated with cytotoxicity and cytokine production respectively; and

RTX-240 induced expression of key NK cell activation receptors, including NKp30 and the ratio of cells expressing the activation receptor NKG2D versus the inhibitory receptor NKG2A.
 
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This specific signature of NK cell receptor expression may allow selection of specific tumor types with predicted sensitivity to RTX-240.
Tumor Infiltration Data
Immune cell trafficking into the tumor microenvironment, or TME, was assessed by tumor biopsies from participating patients with solid tumors (optional; n=4) and AML (standard of care; n=1).

Trafficking of T and NK cells into the TME was observed in 3/5 patients (1.6 to 10-fold increases), including one patient each with metastatic mesothelioma, metastatic soft tissue sarcoma and refractory AML. Tumor infiltration was not observed in patients with ovarian cancer (n=1) and heavily pretreated melanoma (n=1);

There was increased expression of PD-L1 observed in 3/4 patients with solid tumors, suggesting an improved immune-permissive TME; and

In one patient with AML, trafficking of T and NK cells into the bone marrow was associated with increases in the cellularity of the marrow.
Corporate information
We were incorporated in April 2013 as VL26, Inc. under the laws of the State of Delaware. In January 2015, we changed our name to Rubius Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive office is located at 399 Binney Street, 3rd Floor, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and our telephone number is (617) 679-9600. Our website address is www.rubiustx.com. Our website and the information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in, and are not considered part of, this prospectus supplement. You should not rely on any such information in making your decision whether to purchase our common stock.
Implications of being an emerging growth company and smaller reporting company
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We may take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting audited by our independent registered public accounting firm under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments. We may take advantage of these exemptions until December 31, 2024 or until we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” whichever is earlier. We will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such period if certain earlier events occur, including if we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected not to “opt out” of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we will adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard and will do so until such time that we either (i) irrevocably elect to “opt out” of such extended transition period or (ii) no longer qualify as an emerging growth company.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these
 
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scaled disclosures for so long as our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
 
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The offering
Common stock offered by us
6,896,522 shares of our common stock.
Option to purchase additional shares
The underwriters have been granted an option to purchase up to an additional 1,034,482 shares of our common stock from us. This option is exercisable, in whole or in part, for a period of 30 days following the date of this prospectus supplement.
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
87,950,203 shares (or 88,984,685 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).
Use of proceeds
We estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $187,200,000 (or approximately $215,400,000 if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our common stock from us is exercised in full).
We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, to advance development of our ongoing and future clinical programs, to further develop our technology platform and to continue to advance our preclinical pipeline. Any remaining proceeds will be used for other ongoing research and development activities and general corporate purposes, such as working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures, including those related to our in-house manufacturing facility. See “Use of proceeds” for additional information.
Risk factors
See “Risk factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of factors that you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol
“RUBY”
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering set forth above is based on 81,053,651 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020, and excludes:

16,318,124 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $10.31 per share;

4,666,559 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, or 2018 Plan, as of December 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Plan;

1,751,650 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, as of December 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our ESPP; and

252,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of December 31, 2020.
 
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Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of the outstanding options described above after December 31, 2020 and no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional 1,034,482 shares of our common stock.
 
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Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as updated or superseded by the risks and uncertainties described in our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, each of which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and all of the other information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of these risks is realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be harmed. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we think are immaterial may also harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.
Risks related to this offering
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the net proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. Furthermore, you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether such proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our drug candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments, which may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.
If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.
The price of our common stock in this offering is higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. Based on the public offering price of $29.00 per share, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 would have been $328.5 million, or $3.73 per share, representing an immediate increase in the net tangible book value per share of $1.99 to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $25.27 in net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the public offering price. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
In order to raise additional capital, we expect to in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.
We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited in the foreseeable future to the appreciation of their stock.
 
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The price of our stock may be volatile, and our stockholders could lose all or part of their investment.
The trading price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including limited trading volume. Since our common stock began trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 18, 2018, our stock price has traded at prices as low as $3.35 per share and as high as $38.71 per share through March 15, 2021. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk factors” section and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, these factors include:

the commencement, enrollment or results of our ongoing and planned clinical trials of our product candidates or any future clinical trials we may conduct, or changes in the development status of our product candidates;

any delay in our regulatory filings for our product candidates and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the applicable regulatory authority’s review of such filings;

adverse or uninterpretable results from or delays in clinical trials of our product candidates, including those we have experienced for our Phase 1b clinical trial for RTX-134 which we have since discontinued;

our decision to initiate a clinical trial, not to initiate a clinical trial or to terminate an existing clinical trial;

adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval of our product candidates;

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products, including but not limited to clinical trial requirements for approvals;

adverse developments concerning the manufacture of our product candidates, including difficulties such as those we experienced with our former contract manufacturer for clinical supply of our discontinued Phase 1b clinical trial for RTX-134;

our inability to obtain adequate product supply for any approved product or inability to do so at acceptable prices;

our inability to establish collaborations, if needed;

our failure to commercialize our product candidates;

additions or departures of key scientific or management personnel;

unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of our product candidates;

introduction of new products or services by our competitors;

announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us or our competitors;

our ability to effectively manage our growth;

the size and growth of our initial target markets;

actual or anticipated variations in quarterly operating results;

our cash position;

our failure to meet the estimates and projections of the investment community or that we may otherwise provide to the public;

publication of research reports about us or our industry, or cellular therapies in particular, or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

changes in the market valuations of similar companies;

overall performance of the equity markets;

sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders in the future;
 
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trading volume of our common stock;

adoption of new accounting standards;

ineffectiveness of our internal controls;

disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

significant lawsuits, including patent or stockholder litigation;

general political and economic conditions; and

other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control, including pandemics such as COVID-19.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. Additionally, technical factors in the public trading market for our stock may produce price movements that may or may not comport with macro, industry or company-specific fundamentals, including, without limitation, the sentiment of retail investors (including as may be expressed on financial trading and other social media sites), speculation in the press, in the investment community, or on the internet, including on online forums and social media, about us, our industry or our securities, the amount and status of short interest in our securities (including a “short squeeze”), access to margin debt, trading in options and other derivatives on our common stock and other technical trading factors. We may incur rapid and substantial decreases in our stock price in the foreseeable future that are unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. There can be no guarantee that our stock price will remain at current prices or that future sales of our common stock will not be at prices lower than the sales price in this offering. If the market price of our common stock does not exceed their purchase price, our stockholders may not realize any return on their investment in us and may lose some or all of their investment. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. This type of litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which would harm our business, operating results or financial condition.
 
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Special note regarding forward-looking statements
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plan, objectives of management, results of preclinical studies or clinical trials and expected market growth are forward-looking statements.
You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include but are not limited to those described under “Risk Factors” including, among other things:

the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of initiation, enrollment in and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

our ability to advance any product candidate into or successfully complete any clinical trial;

our ability or the potential to successfully manufacture our product candidates or obtain adequate and timely supply of our product candidates for clinical trials or for commercial use, if approved;

our ability to successfully operate our manufacturing facility and any plans for further renovation or expansion;

the potential for our identified research priorities to advance our technologies;

our ability to obtain regulatory approval of any of our current or future product candidates, or to maintain any such approval if obtained, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

the ability to license additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and to comply with our existing license agreements;

our ability to commercialize our products in light of the intellectual property rights of others;

developments relating to cellular therapies, including red blood cell therapies;

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development, clinical trials and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates;

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;

our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates and any other approved product;

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;
 
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the impact of global economic and political developments on our business and on our clinical trials, including economic slowdowns or recessions that may result from the recent outbreak of COVID-19;

natural and manmade disasters, including pandemics such as COVID-19, and other force majeures, which could impact our operations, and those of our partners and other participants in the health care industry, and which could reduce demand for, or inhibit our ability to develop and manufacture, our product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;

our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

the impact of laws and regulations and legislative and regulatory changes;

our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates; and

our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act.
All of our forward-looking statements are as of the date of this prospectus supplement only. In each case, actual results may differ materially from such forward-looking information. We can give no assurance that such expectations or forward-looking statements will prove to be correct. An occurrence of or any material adverse change in one or more of the risk factors or risks and uncertainties referred to in this prospectus supplement or included in our other public disclosures or our other periodic reports or other documents or filings filed with or furnished to the SEC, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Except as required by law, we do not undertake or plan to update or revise any such forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in plans, assumptions, estimates or projections or other circumstances affecting such forward-looking statements occurring after the date of this prospectus supplement, even if such results, changes or circumstances make it clear that any forward-looking information will not be realized. Any public statements or disclosures by us following this prospectus supplement that modify or impact any of the forward-looking statements contained herein will be deemed to modify or supersede such statements in this prospectus supplement.
 
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Use of proceeds
We expect that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $187.2 million (or approximately $215.4 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in full), after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments, to advance development of our ongoing and future clinical programs, to further develop our technology platform and to continue to advance our preclinical pipeline. Any remaining proceeds will be used for other ongoing research and development activities and general corporate purposes, such as working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures, including those related to our in-house manufacturing facility.
The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the time and cost necessary to conduct our planned clinical trials, the results of our planned clinical trials and other factors described in the section titled “Risk factors” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations and any unforeseen cash needs. Therefore, our actual expenditures may differ materially from the estimates described above. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds.
We will have broad discretion over how to use the net proceeds to us from this offering. We intend to invest the net proceeds to us from the offering that are not used as described above in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.
 
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Dividend policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends to our stockholders in the foreseeable future.
Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
 
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Dilution
As of December 31, 2020, we had a historical net tangible book value of $141.3 million, or $1.74 per share of common stock, based on 81,053,651 shares of common stock outstanding. Our historical net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding.
After giving effect to the sale by us of 6,896,552 shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $29.00 per share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 would have been $328.5 million, or $3.73 per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in our net tangible book value of $1.99 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in our net tangible book value of $25.27 per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering. We determine dilution by subtracting our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the amount of cash paid by an investor for a share of common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Public offering price per share
$ 29.00
Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2020
$ 1.74
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing shares in
this offering
1.99
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
3.73
Dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing shares in this offering
$ 25.27
If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase up to 1,034,482 additional shares of common stock at the public offering price of $29.00 per share, the as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be $4.01 per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of $2.27 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $24.99 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the public offering price.
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering set forth above is based on 81,053,651 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020, and excludes:

16,318,124 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $10.31 per share;

4,666,559 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Plan, as of December 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Plan;

1,751,650 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our ESPP, as of December 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our ESPP; and

252,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of December 31, 2020.
Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of the outstanding options described above after December 31, 2020 and no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.
 
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Material U.S. federal income tax considerations for non-U.S. holders
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations for non-U.S. holders (as defined below) with respect to their ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering. For purposes of this discussion, a non-U.S. holder means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

a non-resident alien individual;

a foreign corporation or any other foreign organization taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or

a foreign estate or trust, the income of which is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis.
This discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or other entities that are pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes or persons that hold their common stock through partnerships or other pass-through entities. If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her or its tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.
This discussion is based on current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus supplement and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such change or differing interpretation could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus supplement. There can be no assurance that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described herein. We assume in this discussion that a non-U.S. holder holds shares of our common stock as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, generally property held for investment.
This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes, U.S. federal estate or gift tax laws, the alternative minimum tax, the rules regarding qualified small business stock within the meaning of Section 1202 of the Code, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any other aspect of any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:

insurance companies;

tax-exempt or governmental organizations;

financial institutions;

brokers or dealers in securities;

regulated investment companies;

pension plans;

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(I)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;

persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;
 
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persons that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment;

persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

certain U.S. expatriates.
This discussion is for general information only and is not tax advice. Accordingly, all prospective non-U.S. holders of our common stock should consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.
Distributions on our common stock
As described in the “Dividend policy” section above, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends to our stockholders in the foreseeable future. Distributions, if any, on our common stock will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below in “Gains on sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock.” Any such distributions will also be subject to the discussions below in the sections titled “Backup withholding and information reporting” and “FATCA.”
Subject to the discussion in the following two paragraphs in this section, dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements. However, such U.S. effectively connected income, net of specified deductions and credits, is generally taxed at the same regular U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.
A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) to the applicable withholding agent and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing a U.S. tax return with the IRS.
Gains on sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock
Subject to the discussions below under “Backup withholding and information reporting” and “FATCA,” a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to any U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon such holder’s sale or other taxable disposition of shares of our common stock unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, is attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by such non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on a net income basis at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined
 
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in the Code) and, if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above in “Distributions on our common stock” also may apply;

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence) on the net gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided that the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or

we are, or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such sale or other taxable disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a U.S. real property holding corporation, unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder holds no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, during the shorter of the 5-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. If we are or were a U.S. real property holding corporation during the relevant period and the foregoing exception does not apply, the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on its net gain derived from the disposition at the regular U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Generally, a corporation is a U.S. real property holding corporation only if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we do not believe that we are, or have been, a U.S. real property holding corporation, or that we are likely to become one in the future. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rules described above.
Backup withholding and information reporting
We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a United States person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above in “Distributions on our common stock,” generally will be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.
Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker.
Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them. Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is filed with the IRS in a timely manner.
FATCA
Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on payments of dividends on our common stock paid to a
 
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foreign entity unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner and such entity meets certain other specified requirements, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise exempt under FATCA. Such withholding may also apply to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock, although under proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, no withholding would apply to such gross proceeds. The preamble to the proposed regulations specifies that taxpayers (including withholding agents) are permitted to rely on the proposed regulations pending finalization. Under certain circumstances, a non-U.S. holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of this withholding tax. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this paragraph. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this legislation on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.
The preceding discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations is for general information only. It is not tax advice. Each prospective investor should consult its tax advisor regarding the particular U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed change in applicable laws.
 
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Underwriting
We are offering the shares of common stock described in this prospectus through a number of underwriters. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Jefferies LLC and Guggenheim Securities, LLC are acting as joint book-running managers of the offering and as representatives of the underwriters. We have entered into an underwriting agreement with the underwriters. Subject to the terms and conditions of the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has severally agreed to purchase, at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, the number of shares of common stock listed next to its name in the following table:
Name
Number of
shares
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
3,241,380
Jefferies LLC
2,275,862
Guggenheim Securities, LLC
1,379,310
Total
6,896,552
The underwriters are committed to purchase all the common shares offered by us if they purchase any shares. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may also be increased or the offering may be terminated.
The underwriters propose to offer the common shares directly to the public at the initial public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and to certain dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of $1.044 per share. After the initial offering of the shares to the public, if all of the common shares are not sold at the initial public offering price, the underwriters may change the offering price and the other selling terms. Sales of any shares made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.
The underwriters have an option to buy up to 1,034,482 additional shares of common stock from us to cover sales of shares by the underwriters which exceed the number of shares specified in the table above. The underwriters have 30 days from the date of this prospectus to exercise this option to purchase additional shares. If any shares are purchased with this option to purchase additional shares, the underwriters will purchase shares in approximately the same proportion as shown in the table above. If any additional shares of common stock are purchased, the underwriters will offer the additional shares on the same terms as those on which the shares are being offered.
The underwriting fee is equal to the public offering price per share of common stock less the amount paid by the underwriters to us per share of common stock. The underwriting fee is $1.74 per share. The following table shows the per share and total underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid to the underwriters assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
Without
option to
purchase
additional
shares
exercise
With full
option to
purchase
additional
shares
exercise
Per Share
$ 1.74 $ 1.74
Total
$ 12,000,000.48 $ 13,799,999.16
We estimate that the total expenses of this offering, including registration, filing and listing fees, printing fees and legal and accounting expenses, but excluding the underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $800,000. We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain of their expenses in an amount up to $35,000.
 
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A prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the web sites maintained by one or more underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in the offering. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of shares to underwriters and selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the representatives to underwriters and selling group members that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.
We have agreed that we will not (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, or submit to, or file with, the Securities and Exchange Commission a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for any shares of our common stock, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, disposition or filing, or (ii) enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers all or a portion of the economic consequences associated with the ownership of any shares of common stock or any such other securities (regardless of whether any of these transactions are to be settled by the delivery of shares of common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise), in each case without the prior written consent of the representatives for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus, other than the shares of our common stock to be sold in this offering.
The restrictions on our actions, as described above, do not apply to certain transactions, including (i) the issuance of shares of common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of options (including net exercise) outstanding on the date of the underwriting agreement and described in this prospectus; (ii) grants of stock options, stock awards, restricted stock, RSUs, or other equity awards pursuant to the terms of an equity compensation plan in effect as of the closing of this offering and described in this prospectus; (iii) the issuance of shares or grant of purchase rights under the ESPP; (iv) the issuance of up to 5% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or securities convertible into, exercisable for, or which are otherwise exchangeable for, our common stock, immediately following the closing of this offering, in acquisitions or other similar strategic transactions, provided that such recipients enter into a lock-up agreement with the underwriters; or (v) our filing of any registration statement on Form S-8 relating to securities granted or to be granted pursuant to any plan in effect on the date of the underwriting agreement and described in this prospectus or any assumed benefit plan pursuant to an acquisition or similar strategic transaction.
Our directors and executive officers, and certain of our significant shareholders (such persons, the “lock-up parties”) have entered into lock-up agreements with the underwriters prior to the commencement of this offering pursuant to which each lock-up party, with limited exceptions, for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus (such period, the “restricted period”), may not (and may not cause any of their direct or indirect affiliates to), without the prior written consent of the representatives, (1) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock (including, without limitation, common stock or such other securities which may be deemed to be beneficially owned by such lock-up parties in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and securities which may be issued upon exercise of a stock option or warrant (collectively with the common stock, the “lock-up securities”)), (2) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the lock-up securities, whether any such transaction described in clause (1) or (2) above is to be settled by delivery of lock-up securities, in cash or otherwise, (3) publicly disclose the intention to do any of the foregoing or (4) make any demand for, or exercise any right with respect to, the registration of any lock-up securities.
The restrictions described in the immediately preceding paragraph and contained in the lock-up agreements between the underwriters and the lock-up parties do not apply, subject in certain cases to various conditions, to certain transactions, including

transfers of shares of common stock or any security convertible into common stock as a bona fide gift or gifts, or to a charitable organization or educational institution in a transaction not involving a disposition for value;
 
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transfers, distributions or dispositions of shares of common stock to members or stockholders of the transferor, any member of the immediate family of the transferor or any trust for the direct or indirect benefit of the transferor or the immediate family of the transferor in a transaction not involving a disposition for value;

transactions relating to shares of common stock or other securities acquired in the public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus (other than any issuer-directed shares of common stock purchased in the public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus by an officer or director of the company) or in open market transactions after the pricing of the public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus;

transfers or dispositions of shares of common stock or other securities to any corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other entity, in each case, all of the beneficial ownership interests of which are held by the transferor or the immediate family of the transferor in a transaction not involving a disposition for value;

transfers or dispositions of shares of common stock or other securities (x) by will, other testamentary document or intestate succession to the legal representative, heir, beneficiary or a member of the immediate family of the transferor upon the death of the transferor, or (y) by operation of law pursuant to a domestic order or negotiated divorce settlement;

transfers or dispositions of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock to us pursuant to any contractual arrangement in effect on the date of such lock-up agreement that provides for the repurchase of the transferor’s common stock or other securities by us or in connection with the termination of the transferor’s employment with or service to us;

transfers or dispositions of shares of common stock or other securities to us in connection with the conversion of any convertible preferred stock into, or the exercise of any option or warrant for, shares of common stock;

transfers or dispositions of shares of common stock or other securities to a nominee or custodian of a person or entity to whom a disposition or transfer would be permissible under the seven preceding paragraphs;

the establishment of a trading plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act (a “10b5-1 plan”) for the transfer of shares of common stock;

transfers or dispositions of shares of common stock or such other securities pursuant to a bona fide tender offer for shares of our capital stock, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction made to all holders of our securities involving a change of control (as defined in the lock-up agreement) of us (including, without limitation, the entering into of any lock-up, voting or similar agreement pursuant to which the transferor may agree to transfer, sell, tender or otherwise dispose of shares of common stock or other securities in connection with such transaction) that has been approved by our board of directors; or

transfers of shares of our common stock by pursuant to a 10b5-1 plan established prior to the date of this prospectus, which 10b5-1 plan shall not be amended during the restricted period but may be terminated during the restricted period.
The representatives, in their sole discretion, may release the securities subject to any of the lock-up agreements with the underwriters described above, in whole or in part at any time.
Record holders of our securities are typically the parties to the lock-up agreements with the underwriters and the market standoff agreements with us referred to above, while holders of beneficial interests in our shares who are not also record holders in respect of such shares are not typically subject to any such agreements or other similar restrictions. Accordingly, we believe that certain holders of beneficial interests who are not record holders and are not bound by market standoff or lock-up agreements could enter into transactions with respect to those beneficial interests that negatively impact our stock price. In addition, an shareholder who is neither subject to a market standoff agreement with us nor a lock-up agreement with the underwriters may be able to sell, short sell, transfer, hedge, pledge, lend or otherwise dispose of or attempt to sell short sell, transfer, hedge, pledge, lend or otherwise dispose of, their equity interests at any time after the closing of this offering.
We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933.
 
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In connection with this offering, the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions, which involves making bids for, purchasing and selling shares of common stock in the open market for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock while this offering is in progress. These stabilizing transactions may include making short sales of common stock, which involves the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares of common stock than they are required to purchase in this offering, and purchasing shares of common stock on the open market to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales may be “covered” shorts, which are short positions in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares referred to above, or may be “naked” shorts, which are short positions in excess of that amount. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their option to purchase additional shares, in whole or in part, or by purchasing shares in the open market. In making this determination, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market compared to the price at which the underwriters may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the common stock in the open market that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. To the extent that the underwriters create a naked short position, they will purchase shares in the open market to cover the position.
The underwriters have advised us that, pursuant to Regulation M of the Securities Act of 1933, they may also engage in other activities that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock, including the imposition of penalty bids. This means that if the representatives of the underwriters purchase common stock in the open market in stabilizing transactions or to cover short sales, the representatives can require the underwriters that sold those shares as part of this offering to repay the underwriting discount received by them.
These activities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock, and, as a result, the price of the common stock may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If the underwriters commence these activities, they may discontinue them at any time. The underwriters may carry out these transactions on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.
In addition, in connection with this offering certain of the underwriters (and selling group members) may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on The Nasdaq Stock Market prior to the pricing and completion of this offering. Passive market making consists of displaying bids on The Nasdaq Stock Market no higher than the bid prices of independent market makers and making purchases at prices no higher than these independent bids and effected in response to order flow. Net purchases by a passive market maker on each day are generally limited to a specified percentage of the passive market maker’s average daily trading volume in the common stock during a specified period and must be discontinued when such limit is reached. Passive market making may cause the price of our common stock to be higher than the price that otherwise would exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. If passive market making is commenced, it may be discontinued at any time.
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided in the past to us and our affiliates and may provide from time to time in the future certain commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services for us and such affiliates in the ordinary course of their business, for which they have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions. In addition, from time to time, certain of the underwriters
 
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and their affiliates may effect transactions for their own account or the account of customers, and hold on behalf of themselves or their customers, long or short positions in our debt or equity securities or loans, and may do so in the future.
Selling restrictions
Prohibition of sales to EEA retail investors
In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area (each, a “Relevant State”), an offer to the public of any shares of common stock may not be made in that Relevant State, except that an offer to the public in that Relevant State of any shares of common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:
(a) to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined under the Prospectus Regulation;
(b) to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than “qualified investors” as defined under the Prospectus Regulation), per Relevant State, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters for any such offer; or
(c) in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation;
provided that no such offer of shares of common stock shall result in a requirement for the Company or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or a supplemental prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any shares of common stock or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, warranted and agreed to and with the underwriters and the Company that it is a qualified investor within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the Prospectus Regulation. The Company, the underwriters and their affiliates will rely upon the truth and accuracy of the foregoing representation, warranty and agreement.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares of common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares of common stock, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.
Prohibition of sales to UK retail investors
An offer to the public of any shares of common stock may not be made in the United Kingdom, except that an offer to the public in the United Kingdom of any shares of common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the UK Prospectus Regulation:
(a) to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined under the UK Prospectus Regulation;
(b) to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than “qualified investors” as defined under the UK Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters for any such offer; or
(c) in any other circumstances falling within section 86 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended, “FSMA”);
provided that no such offer of shares of common stock shall result in a requirement for the Company or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to section 85 of the FSMA or a supplemental prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the UK Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any shares of common stock or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, warranted and agreed to and with the underwriters and the Company that it is a qualified investor within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the UK Prospectus Regulation. The Company, the underwriters and their affiliates will rely upon the truth and accuracy of the foregoing representation, warranty and agreement.
 
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For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares in the United Kingdom means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares of common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any shares of common stock, and the expression “UK Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.
Additional notice to prospective investors in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, this prospectus supplement and any other material in relation to the shares of common stock described herein are being distributed only to, and are directed only at, persons who are “qualified investors “ (as defined in the UK Prospectus Regulation ) who are (i) persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (as amended, the “Order”), (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order or (iii) persons to whom it would otherwise be lawful to distribute them, all such persons together being referred to as “Relevant Persons.” In the United Kingdom, the shares of common stock are only available to, and any invitation, offer or agreement to subscribe, purchase or otherwise acquire such shares of common stock will be engaged in only with, Relevant Persons. This prospectus supplement and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by any recipients to any other person in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a Relevant Person should not act or rely on this prospectus supplement or its contents. The shares of common stock are not being offered to the public in the United Kingdom.
Notice to prospective investors in Canada
The shares of common stock may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the shares of common stock must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.
 
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Legal matters
Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts, which has acted as our counsel in connection with this offering, will pass upon the validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby. Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as counsel to the underwriters in connection with this offering.
Experts
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an emphasis of matter paragraph relating to the Company’s requirement for additional financing to fund future operations as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
Where you can find more information
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits thereto. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information with respect to us and the common stock we are offering under this prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.
Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.rubiustx.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
 
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Incorporation of certain information by reference
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than Current Reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the filing and concurrent effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of all offerings covered by this prospectus supplement:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 23, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January 11, 2021 and March 15, 2021; and

the description of our Common Stock in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 13, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus supplement or the underlying prospectus is delivered, without charge upon the written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at Investor Relations Department, Rubius Therapeutics, Inc., 399 Binney Street, Suite 300, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, (617) 679-9600.
Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.
 
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PROSPECTUS
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$450,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $450,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings in amounts at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.
We may offer these securities separately or together in units. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will specify the terms of the securities being offered. We may sell these securities to or through underwriters or dealers and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions, or discount arrangements, in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this document and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RUBY”. On July 29, 2019, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $14.59 per share. Our principal executive offices are located at 399 Binney Street, Suite 300, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus beginning on page 2 and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is August 21, 2019

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $450,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 28 of this prospectus.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO OFFER AND SELL SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL PROSPECTUS OR A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to the “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Rubius Therapeutics, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks referenced below and described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, and (iii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

our ability to advance any product candidate into or successfully complete any clinical trial;

our ability or the potential to successfully manufacture our product candidates for clinical trials or for commercial use, if approved;

our plans to renovate, customize and operate our manufacturing facility purchased in 2018;

the potential for our identified research priorities to advance our technologies;

our ability to maintain regulatory approval, if obtained, of any of our current or future product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

the ability to license additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and to comply with our existing license agreements;

our ability to commercialize our products in light of the intellectual property rights of others;

developments relating to cellular therapies, including red blood cell therapies;

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates;

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;

our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates and any other approved product;

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
 
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our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;

our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

the impact of laws and regulations;

our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;

our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act; and

our use of the proceeds from the initial public offering and any offering pursuant to this prospectus.
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.
 
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THE COMPANY
We are developing a new class of cellular medicines, Red Cell Therapeutics, or RCTs. Based on our vision that human red blood cells are the foundation of the next significant innovation in medicine, we have designed a proprietary platform to genetically engineer and culture RCTs that are selective, potent and ready-to-use cellular therapies. We believe that our RCTs will provide life-changing or life-saving benefits for patients with severe diseases across multiple therapeutic areas.
We have generated hundreds of RCTs using our RED PLATFORM®, a highly versatile and proprietary cellular therapy platform. We are utilizing our universal engineering and manufacturing processes to advance a broad pipeline of RCT product candidates into clinical trials in rare diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Common design and manufacturing elements of our RCTs should enable us to achieve significant advantages in product development. We are establishing end-to-end manufacturing capabilities and plan to develop commercial infrastructure to further establish ourselves as a leading, fully integrated cellular therapy company.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. We would cease to be an emerging growth company on the date that is the earliest of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) December 31, 2023; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2013 under the previous name, VL26, Inc. In January 2015, we changed our name to Rubius Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 399 Binney Street, Suite 300, Cambridge, MA 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 679-9600. Our website address is www.rubiustx.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RUBY”.
We are the owner of the RUBIUS THERAPEUTICS trademark, as well as certain other trademarks, including design versions of some of these trademarks. Our application for the RED CELL THERAPEUTICS and RED PLATFORM trademarks are currently pending. The symbols ™ and ® are not used in connection with the presentation of these trademarks in this prospectus and their absence does not indicate a lack of trademark rights. Certain other trademarks used in this prospectus are the property of third-party trademark owners and may be presented with or without trademark references.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and/or preclinical studies and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.
 
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SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, we will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities offered.
We may sell the securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents, directly to purchasers or through a combination of any of these methods of sale or as otherwise set forth below under “Plan of Distribution.” We, as well as any agents acting on our behalf, reserve the sole right to accept and to reject in whole or in part any proposed purchase of securities. Any prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other entities involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock and preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law. The terms of our common stock and preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.
Authorized Capital Stock
Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.
As of June 30, 2019, 80,077,679 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 32 stockholders of record.
Common Stock
The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends, but only when and as declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. All outstanding shares are fully paid and non-assessable.
When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and non-assessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and non-assessable and will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights.
The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private
 
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offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our certificate of incorporation, grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Registration Rights
Pursuant to the terms of our second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, dated as of February 23, 2018, or the investors’ rights agreement, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act until the earliest of (a) the fifth (5th) anniversary of our initial public offering, (b) a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, or (c) such time as such holder’s registrable securities could be sold without any restriction on volume or manner of sale on any three month period under Rule 144 or any successor rule. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.
Demand Registration Rights
The holders of 38,296,526 shares of our common stock are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of the holders of a majority of our outstanding registrable securities then outstanding, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, that would result in an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $10.0 million, to file a registration statement and use best efforts to effect the registration of all or a portion of these shares for public resale. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.
Short-Form Registration Rights
Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of at least 30% of the holders of registrable securities to sell registrable securities at an aggregate offering amount, net of selling expenses, of at least $5.0 million, we will be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to effect a registration of those shares. We are required to effect only two registrations in any 12-month period pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement. The right to have those shares registered on Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations.
Piggyback Registration Rights
Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of the registrable securities are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering.
Indemnification
Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.
Expiration of Registration Rights
The demand registration rights, short form registration rights and piggyback registration rights granted under the investors’ rights agreement will terminate on (a) the fifth anniversary of our initial public
 
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offering, (b) a deemed liquidation event, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, or (c) with respect to any stockholder at such time as such holder’s shares may be sold without restriction pursuant to Rule 144 within a three-month period.
Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws and Delaware Law
Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.
Board Composition and Filling Vacancies
Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds (2/3) or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office, even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.
No Written Consent of Stockholders
Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This requirement may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our amended and restated by-laws, or our by-laws, or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.
Meetings of Stockholders
Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our by-laws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.
Advance Notice Requirements
Our by-laws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our by-laws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.
Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws
Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our by-laws and
 
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certificate of incorporation must be approved by not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our by-laws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the by-laws, and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
Our certificate of incorporation provides for 10,000,000 authorized shares of undesignated preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Choice of Forum
Our by-laws provides that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of or based on a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers and employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, employees or stockholders arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, or (v) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to the Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein (the “Delaware Forum Provision”). The Delaware Forum Provision will not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Our by-laws further provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act (the “Federal Forum Provision”). We have chosen the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for these causes of action because our principal executive offices are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
On December 19, 2018, in Sciabacucchi v. Salzberg, C.A. No. 2017-0931-JTL (Del. Ch.), the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware issued a decision declaring that federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are ineffective and invalid under Delaware law. On January 17, 2019, the decision was appealed to the Delaware Supreme Court. While the Delaware Supreme Court dismissed the appeal on jurisdictional grounds, we expect that the appeal will be re-filed after the Court of Chancery issues a final judgment. Unless and until the Court of Chancery’s decision is reversed by the Delaware Supreme Court or otherwise abrogated, we do not intend to enforce our Federal Forum Provision designating the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for Securities Act claims. In the event that the Delaware Supreme Court affirms the Court of Chancery’s decision or otherwise determines that federal forum selection provisions are invalid, our board of directors intends to amend promptly our by-laws to remove our Federal Forum Provision.
We recognize that the Federal Forum Provision may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert the provision is not enforceable and may impose more general additional litigation costs in
 
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pursuing any these claims, particularly if the stockholders do not reside in or near the State of Delaware or the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Additionally, the forum selection clauses in our by-laws may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us. Alternatively, if the Federal Forum Provision is found inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RUBY”.
 
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Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 and its telephone number is (800) 937-5449.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
This section describes the general terms and provisions of our debt securities that we may issue from time to time. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will describe the specific terms of any debt securities offered through that prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may differ from the terms we describe below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the “indentures,” we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.
The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete applicable indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.
General
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title;

the principal amount being offered, and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

any limit on the amount that may be issued;

whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, and, if so, the terms and who the depository will be;

the maturity date;

whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

the place where payments will be payable;
 
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restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the date, if any, after which, the conditions upon which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option, to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiary to:

incur additional indebtedness;

issue additional securities;

create liens;

pay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiary;

redeem capital stock;

place restrictions on our subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;

make investments or other restricted payments;

sell or otherwise dispose of assets;

enter into sale-leaseback transactions;

engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;

issue or sell stock of our subsidiary; or

effect a consolidation or merger;

whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;

a discussion of certain material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

information describing any book-entry features;

provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any;

the applicability of the provisions in the indenture on discharge;

whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the debt securities.
 
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Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third-party). We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third-party) that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indentures will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate. If the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities of ours or securities of other entities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our property must make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended;

if we fail to pay the principal, premium or sinking fund payment, if any, when due and payable at maturity, upon redemption or repurchase or otherwise, and the time for payment has not been extended;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.
We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any additional events of default relating to the relevant series of debt securities.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
 
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Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense or to be incurred in compliance with instituting the proceeding as trustee; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities, or other defaults that may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
Subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following specific matters:

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Our Debt Securities — Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided under “Description of Our Debt Securities — General,” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;

to provide for uncertificated debt securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;
 
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to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred to us in the indenture; or

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.
In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue or as otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the stated maturity of the series of debt securities;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that, subject to the terms of the indenture and any limitation otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depository named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus with respect to that series.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
 
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Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series. If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs.
Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
 
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Ranking of Debt Securities
The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
The senior debt securities will rank equally in right of payment to all our other senior unsecured debt. The senior indenture does not limit the amount of senior debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.
General
We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.
We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;

the manner of exercise;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.
Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of a particular series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unit Agreements
We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:
Modification without Consent
We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:

to cure any ambiguity, including modifying any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;
 
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to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or

to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the affected holders in any material respect.
We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.
Modification with Consent
We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or

reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.
Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or

If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.
These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.
In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.
Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act
No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.
Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default
The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.
The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.
Governing Law
The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.
 
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Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue each unit in global — i.e., book-entry — form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.
If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.
The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.

If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity, and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.
Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.
Payments and Notices
In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, if required, in any of the following ways: (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices, either:

on or through the facilities of The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

to or through a market maker otherwise than on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.
In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.
The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

the public offering or purchase price;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.
If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.
In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.
If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.
If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.
 
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Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.
Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may over allot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.
We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this
 
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prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading market for any of the securities.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).
We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock.” We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed to Investor Relations, Rubius Therapeutics, Inc., 399 Binney Street, Suite 300, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and our website is located at www.rubiustx.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 28, 2019;

our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A (Amendment No. 1) for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2019;

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed), which was filed with the SEC on April 12, 2019;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2019;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 22, 2019, March 11, 2019, March 25, 2019, May 15, 2019 and May 23, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and
 
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the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 13, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.
Upon request, either orally or in writing, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Investor Relations Department, Rubius Therapeutics, Inc., 399 Binney Street, Suite 300, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, (617) 679-9600.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.
You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.
 
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6,896,552 shares
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_rubiustherape-4c.jpg]
Common stock
Prospectus supplement
Joint book-running managers
J.P. Morgan
Jefferies
Guggenheim Securities
March 16, 2021